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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 17-21

Cardiac preconditioning and cardiovascular diseases


Department of Neurosurgery, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA

Correspondence Address:
William A Li
Department of Neurosurgery, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48202
USA
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/hm.hm_4_17

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Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the United States. Cardiac preconditioning, an endogenous phenomenon, has been shown to protect the heart from acute myocardial infarction by subjecting it to brief cycles of ischemia and reperfusion. The concept of ischemic preconditioning has led to a group of cardiac conditioning strategies that include preconditioning, postconditioning, and remote conditioning. Other than complete reperfusion, cardiac conditioning is considered the most powerful intervention available for reducing infarct size in animal models and in clinical trials. A comprehensive investigation into the mechanisms underlying cardiac conditioning has led to the identification of several therapeutic targets for pharmacological intervention, including the ATP-dependent potassium channel. Remote cardiac conditioning has garnered a great deal of attention as a noninvasive method to deliver conditioning. Several signaling mechanisms have been investigated, including humoral communication and neuronal stimulation. Although the cardioprotective pathways of remote conditioning are widely studied, the translation to clinical practice has been controversial. Two recent, large, and well-designed clinical trials highlight the challenges of implementing remote conditioning. However, a number of cardioprotective therapies involving conditioning have shown promising results. Future research should continue to explore the potential of remote conditioning.


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